Sponges are similar to other animals in that they are multicellular, heterotrophic, lack cell walls and produce sperm cells. Unlike other animals, they lack true tissues and organs, and they have no body symmetry. Many sponges have internal skeletons of spongin , calcium carbonate, or silicon dioxide. All sponges are sessile aquatic animals. Although there are freshwater species, the great majority (~10000 species) are marine species, ranging from tidal zones to depths exceeding 8,800 m.
Neopetrosia is a genus of marine sponges. The new species was found in Brazil and its name is derived from the punctiform or furrowed surface, which is one of the characteristics of this species.
For the experts: The genus Neopetrosia was characterized by has fine brushes of oxeas issued from subectosomal tracts and compact choanosomal network. We report and describe here specimens collected in the coast of Brazil: Neopetrosia sulcata sp. nov. and Neopetrosia proxima. The first was previously recorded from Brazil as Neopetrosia proxima, but it was found that these specimens corresponded to a new species. Thus, we provide here the characterization of N. proxima from Brazilian coast. A taxonomic study of Brazilian samples is given, including description, illustrations and geographic distribution, combined with the comparison of the new species with all other descriptions of Neopetrosia from Atlantic.